UEF for EU Constitution in 2017

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javier
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UEF for EU Constitution in 2017

Beitrag von javier »

Dear Friends,

I would like to appeal to all federalists in the UEF to withdraw the proposals they have submitted for the conference on the future of Europe that will theoretically start in 2020. This document does not ask for a Constitution for the EU .... simply the maximum that is found is the sentence:
"The prospect of a European Constitution should be considered"
The federalists who, from the years 1940, 1950, 1980, 1990, fought for a Constitution that unfortunately was never achieved. However, the Federalists of the UEF in the Federal Committee of Madrid 2017 reached some hopeful conclusions demanding a Federation that would open the way for a Constitution. That is to say that the year 2020 is asked less than in the year 2017 ... that is not typical of the federalists at least of the federalists at heart

Therefore we must demand that the UEF reconsider its proposals for the next conference on the future of the EU. The UEF Board can simply present the conclusions of the federal committee of Madrid 2017 that I allow myself to recall below:

19 June, 2017
Resolution on overcoming the crises and completing European political unity
Adopted by the UEF Federal Committee, 18 June 2017, Madrid

The uniting of Europe is a success story. The signing of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957 in the Italian capital was and still is a cornerstone in the European integration history. For 60 years the European Communities and then the European Union have been guaranteeing that European peoples live in peace and under the rule of law after centuries of wars. On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the signing the European Movement and the Union of European Federalists, together with thousands of citizens, demonstrated their support in powerful actions in Rome.

And there are other positive signs. The UEF welcomes the electoral success of the pro-European forces in Austria, the Netherlands and France. The populists and the Euro-sceptics have not prevailed. On the contrary, the election of Emmanuel Macron as President of France has shown that important elections can be won with a clear commitment to Europe.

On his first visit abroad, which led him to Chancellor Merkel in Berlin, the French President announced a new European initiative in close consultation with Berlin. The UEF supports these plans and calls on the EU-governments to accept this offer and start a new reform initiative. Europe needs urgent new impulses. The successful “March for Europe” in Rome and many demonstrations of "Pulse of Europe” in numerous European cities in the past months have shown that the citizens appreciate the advantages of Europe and that they want to continue the European path of integration

Uniting Europe was and still is the basic condition for peace, prosperity and progress of our continent. But the EU remains an inefficient and incomplete construction at risk of even collapsing if not completed without delay. It is still struggling against multiple difficulties that are threatening its existence and the political project of peace and integration that it embodies. The European Union has not recovered yet from the prolonged economic and financial crisis, nor have its Member States succeeded in successfully dealing with the refugees’ emergency, and the problems of both domestic and external security. After the close result of the Brexit-referendum in the United Kingdom for the first time in history a Member State intends to leave the
Union. Anti-European, populist and xenophobe parties have been gaining ground in nearly all Member States, until the positive outcomes of the Dutch and French elections in the spring 2017, in coincidence with the pro-European citizen’s mobilisations and the Rome demonstration.

The immediate reform Europe needs
We therefore call on the EU institutions and the Heads of State and Government to approve a concrete
and ambitious roadmap in order to relaunch and complete Europe’s economic and political unity. The
existing Treaties must be used in full to promote immediate progress in important political fields:
• As the European Union has a single currency, the Euro, and as the economic and financial crisis of the
recent years has damaged European economy, so affecting citizens’ trust, the Eurozone should be
strengthened with a European economic, fiscal and social policy funded with a budget based on own
resources, allowing to modernise and relaunch the economy, finance productive investments, foster
competitiveness, promote sustainable development and employment, ensure social cohesion and
guarantee the future of the European social model.
• As the European Union has a common external border and ensures the free circulation of persons within
its single market, immigration and asylum policies should be managed at the European level, including
European border and coast-guard forces taking responsibility for that common external border.
• The introduction of the Spitzenkandidaten in the 2014 European elections should be
strengthened by the creation of transnational lists, each voter casting a second ballot for one of
these lists. A proportional system would be appropriate.
• As wars and instability afflict the regions around Europe, European defence forces should guarantee
Europe´s common security, help pacify our neighbourhood and contribute to the management of
international crises and conflicts. To proceed towards this goal, willing Member States should start
immediately a permanent structured cooperation within the European Union framework in line with the
provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon.
• As threats of international terrorism and international crime increase, they should be prevented through
European cooperation and strong European support, including mandatory exchange of information
among national police corps and the establishment of an EU Prosecutor’s office with a broad mandate.
• As millions of people flee from war and economic despair and try to land in Europe, the European Union
should develop and apply a common, modern and effective migration and asylum policy on the bases of
solidarity and fairness.
• As populism troubles European societies, the European Union should re-affirm and defend its common
values and take measures to protect and effectively defend democracy, tolerance, justice, solidarity and
the rule of law, within its territory and on the international stage.

A new phase of integration beyond the existing Treaties
Moreover it is necessary to launch, without any delay, a new phase of integration going beyond the existing Treaties in order to preserve and complete the Union’s achievements, prevent any institutional instability that the prospect of the United Kingdom exiting the Union may create,
and achieve full political unity on the basis of a federal constitution.

This new phase is needed to consolidate the economic and monetary union into a political union – so enabling the building of a truly European sovereignty, the creation of a federal system of effective and democratically legitimised levels of government while complying with the principle of subsidiarity. If not all Member States are prepared to support this new move and willing to proceed to closer economic and political integration, those Member States who indeed are should start without any delay and become the political core of a multi-tier European Union.

If the European Union is to thrive for the many years to come, it must pursue the paths of social cohesion, prosperity and political unity and solidarity, which can only be pursued by a democratic European government. As national democracies can’t govern political and economic forces beyond national borders, only a strong European government accountable to citizens and a fully developed European democracy would allow Europeans to control their own destiny. A federal Europe with strong democratic and efficient institutions is the only way to meet this challenge.
Europe will not be united if it is not democratic. And it will not be fully democratic if it is not a federation.
This is why we call for a concrete reform agenda including a structured dialogue of the Institutions with the pro- European civil society, a dialogue that should start immediately and come up with both a bold agenda and a clear mandate for Treaty changes leading to a European Constitution.

The necessary debate on the future of Europe
The debate on the future of Europe has begun. The European Parliament voted on several own-initiative reports indicating the right direction: Mercedes Bresso and Elmar Brok have proposed the possible progress under the existing Treaties and Guy Verhofstadt shows the need for further reform. The report by Pervenche Berès and Reimer Böge deals with the necessary further developments in the euro area. These three reports provide important foundations for the discussion on the future of the EU.

Until now the reactions of the other political leaders to the dramatic situation within the European Union are unsatisfactory. The Rome declaration of the Heads of State and Government is vague and does not include promising proposals on how to proceed. The White Paper of the Commission on the future of Europe presents a variety of scenarios instead of giving a clear vision of the necessary reforms. But the Commission’s White Paper structures the debate which must be continued in the coming months.

The interest of those who stand for European progress is focused on the scenario “Progress in the circle of the willing”. The drawbacks of this model in the form of a “Europe à la carte” are obvious. There would be no balance of interests between all parties, and the readiness for solidarity would scarcely exist. Instead of such a dangerous venture, reform steps should be taken in a larger and more or less fixed group of integration-oriented Member States always open for the rest. This group can be formed by the Eurozone countries which are jointly involved in areas with urgent and concrete reform needs, such as stronger economic governance, joint taxes and an increased EU budget, with social policy objectives. The Monetary Union must urgently be transformed into a fully-fledged Economic Union in order to prevent a break-up of the Eurozone.

Now it is the time to stand up for Europe
The time has come for those who really care about Europe and the Europeans to make themselves heard, and to show that they still make up the majority in this continent. There is a need for a more political Europe, in terms of democratic institutions and the realisation of true federal continental policies. Faced with a struggling economy and fading influence in a globalised world dominated by continental powers, we Europeans
cannot close ourselves within national borders hoping to fence problems off. European states will have no future if they remain divided and compete with each other instead of standing united. Nationalism will weaken us all. We can stand up to European and global challenges only together, by completing Europe’s political unity.

For those who believe in a strong, united and democratic Europe, it is time to stand up. Against nationalism and populism. For a Europe of unity against divisions and new walls. For a united Europe that delivers on its promises of peace, solidarity, freedom, equality, security, prosperity and shared responsibility. For a Europe that protects European interests and values in the world. For a Europe of democracy that empowers
European citizens. For a Europe of hope, against a Europe of fear. For a plan to relaunch and complete European political unity.

Together we can stand for a Europe turned towards the future, able to answer to the big challenges of our times, and to preserve its values, the achievements of the European social model, and its way of life. The 70th anniversary of the Hague Congress in May 2018 provides the momentum to bring forward this agenda for a full Federal Union in Europe.

I hope many fellow federalists and non-federalists will support this call so that at the end of the next conference on the future of Europe, the EU finally has a Federal Constitution.

Best european greetings

Javier Giner
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Hans Müller
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Re. to „UEF for EU Constitution in 2017“

Beitrag von Hans Müller »

Dear Mr. Javier Giner,

On 05 September 2020 you posted a strong appeal for a EU Constitution to the “Europastammtisch-Website” of the Europa-Union Heilbronn, and you quoted the complete text of the “Resolution on overcoming the crises and completing European political unity”, adopted by the UEF Federal Committee on 18. June 2017 in Madrid. As you know, during this meeting in Madrid the Federal Committee adopted even more important resolutions, besides the one you quoted. The Committee also adopted the following
  • Resolution on external dimension of the EU migration policy
  • Resolution on the EU – US relationship
  • Resolution regarding democratic legitimacy in EMU governance
  • Resolution on Fiscal Union.
Looking back and reading all this today, three years later, I can understand how many Europeans who are fighting hard for the “realilization of a more and closer union of European nations” are disappointed about so little progress. Looking at all the Madrid resolutions, we can see a very ambitous program for Europe’s future with only parts of all these ideas realized. Most of the tasks mentioned in the resolution you quoted is still on the table, for example:
  • The immigration and asylum policies should be managed at European level; the EU should develop and apply a common, modern and effective migration an asylum policy on the bases of solidarity and fairness.
  • The EU should re-affirm and defend its common values and take measures to protect and effectively defend democracy, tolerance, justice, solidarity and the rule of law, within its territory and on the international stage
  • This new phase is needed to consolidate the economic and monetary union into a political union – so enabling the building of a truly European sovereignty, the creation of a federal system of effective and democratically legitimised levels of government while complying with the principle of subsidiarity.

And last but not least – I assume, this is the part of the Madrid Resolution, you are referring to:
“... we call for a concrete reform agenda including a structured dialogue of the institutions with the pro-European civil society, a dialogue that should start immediately and come up with both a bold agenda and a clear mandate for Treaty changes leading to a European Constitution.”
I am sorry to say, not much did happen since. This is disappointing for true Europeans and makes it so much harder to inspire young people for the European Union. But there is some progress: The last EU summit decided on the 750 BN Euro “Corona Relief Program”, it allowed the EU to take credits and also to raise own income.
The Madrid Resolution of 2017 said the following:
“The Eurozone should be strengthened with a European economic, fiscal and social policy funded with a budget based on own resources, allowing to modernise and relaunch the economy, finance productive investments ....”.
So here I see a chance for a new start to advance the economic and financial union – if the European Council is ready to do so. But there should be much more to come...

What about the federal Constitution for the European Union? Many European organisations, politicians, experts, authors and citizens stood up for a federal Constitution to finish the “European House”. But we all remember what happened to the Constitution the last time. If we tried again in good faith and the Constitution was voted down again, this could be the end of the Union.

As far as I am concerned the EU has at least four urgent tasks to settle – before we start to fight for the Constitution again:
  • The fight against climate change; the European “Green Deal” was already watered down by interest groups. What isn’t done today will be passed on to future generations. Young people will watch closely what Europe does and what Europe does not!
  • The refugee- and asylum crisis; what happened in Moria – long before it burned down – was inhuman and disgusting!
  • The realisation of the “Corona-Relief-Program” and and the EU budget; the EU Parliament already put a long list for changes on the table.
    One very important part of the list: the problems with the Rule-of-Law in some member states. It is a shame and it really makes me mad to see some governments taking EU money and at the same time making fun of Art. 2 EUT and the values of the European Union.
  • Brexit and the future relations with the UK. If the EU isn’t careful here, there could be “followers”.
The 3 November 2020 will be an important date not only for the United States. Should Donald Trump get four more years, Europe would have to adjust her relations to the US very rapidly. Trump would not hesitate to involve Europe in his quarrels with China and he might even try to split the EU together with some of his friends in some member states. This has happened before when George W. Bush went to war against Iraque.

Besides fighting for a Constitution Europe has a lot to do in many fields. I am sure you know the Düsseldorf Program of the Europa-Union Deutschland, decided on 28 October 2012. In Section 2 of the program the EUD sets the goal for Europe’s future and demands a democratic federal state under the rule of law and based on a Constitution approved by a referendum all over Europe. I am sure the federal Constitution will be kept in mind – except the EU will falter.


Best wishes to you

Hans Müller
(Member of the Europa-Union Heilbronn)
Mit freundlichen Grüßen
Ihr
Hans Müller
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javier
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Re: UEF for EU Constitution in 2017

Beitrag von javier »

Dear Mr. Müller,
You are right that many topics were proposed in the Madrid committee and some of them have been carried out at least provisionally. I say provisionally because the EU works with treaties and treaties can be altered, sometimes they are modified and other times contracts are not fulfilled. In Germany after the war, they did not deal with the tax issue, emigration, etc. but the first issue that was addressed in Germany was the Federal Constitution. Afterwards, the Federal Germany developed in peace and prosperity, even creating the famous "German miracle"
Therefore, if the EU had developed with a Federal Constitution, it would also very likely have occurred a miracle EU... and we would not have at the present time any problem with China, Russia and the USA.

In any case, do not believe that I do not greatly respect the achievements of the EU ... well it is the contrary: I respect them a lot, I have also had the luck of living the generation that has benefited a lot from the well-being and peace that the EU has given us.

in the past I already had my own list at the top of the advantages of the EU but now thanks to our friend Heinrich I have obtained a book that is entitled: Gute Grunde für die EU. See the book on this link:
https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/re ... 8fb67b09a2

And with this sample I want to make it clear that the Federalists have had a lot to do with the great achievements of the EU to date.
The problem is that they started the construction of the European House from the roof ... and you already know that a house only has solidity when the foundations and the pillars that support the house are first laid

That is why I am a federalist but I am not going to waste my time in discussions that do not serve to save the European Union.
Mr. Kümmerle often says that just for the number of years that the EU has given us peace is worth talking about ... and talking until we reach the goal (EU Bundesverfaßung) but we must be careful because nationalisms are growing and one time they could win .. with divided Europe that would only bring disasters and wars
Therefore I will continue thinking and working for a „EU Bundesverfassung ohne wenn oder aber“

You mention some tasks :
„As far as I am concerned the EU has at least four urgent tasks to settle – before we start to fight for the Constitution again“
As written in the previous paragraph, I have a totally opposite opinion: I will only work for a Constitution so that the EU has the ability to solve problems. Without the Constitution there will only be treaties that each day will be more fragile and the EU could disintegrate to the joy of the enemies of the EU (Nationalisms)

you write:
But we all remember what happened to the Constitution the last time. If we tried again in good faith and the Constitution was voted down again, this could be the end of the Union.
this cannot happen again because it will be done in such a way that only the countries that want the Constitution will have to commit to carrying out a previous Referedum in the countries. Only in the States where there are a majority of citizens who vote for a Federal Constitution will be part of the EU Federation (only 9 States are needed)
The EU federation will be open to the subsequent entry of other states just by accepting the Federal Constitution. But the State interested in joining the federation will first have to pay the debts it owes to the rest of the world.
Brexit and the future relations with the UK. If the EU isn’t careful here, there could be “followers”.
he Brexit issue is not contemplated in the future EU Federal Constitution. Simply, if they want to re-enter the EU federation, they will have to hold a prior referendum and if the citizens decide to enter the Federation, or they reject it. If they vote in favor, Great Britain will have to pay its outstanding debts with the rest of the world and those that I have pending with the EU if it ends up leaving abruptly and without an agreement
The 3 November 2020 will be an important date ... 
the 3 of November, it will be important for the USA to put its Federation in order ... because it is no longer an imperial power but merely a ruined country with the largest debt that any state in the world has ever produced......and possibly with poorer and homeless people than in many third world countries ...

The EU will continue to be divided between elites and ordinary citizens ... but the path to a federal EU constitution will be closer every day.
and little by little the EU will be able to define its international policy (perhaps it will be convenient to look at the example of Switzerland to declare the EU neutral) so that we can truly be an example for the world where we can show and export the traditional values of Europe

Best european greetings
Javier Giner
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Heinrich
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Re: UEF for EU Constitution in 2017

Beitrag von Heinrich »

Dear Javier,
just one remark to your latest post here. You mention
... to define its international policy (perhaps it will be convenient to look at the example of Switzerland to declare the EU neutral) so that we can truly be an example for the world where we can show and export the traditional values of Europe
Even that some European Federalists believed in 1946 to be able creating a neutral Europe as intermediary between the USA and the former Soviet Union, the reality proved that it is essentially necessary to take sides. Latest in 1947 the members of UEF agreed that Europe and also the future United States of Europe must join the Free World to guarantee e.g. Human Rights -- not only for Europeans but also for the rest of the world not occupied by totalitarian regimes. And also the mentioned Switzerland took sides from the beginning -- even the Swiss insisted to be neutral.

We have to admit that we share the same values within the Western World, and that the differences between the USA and the EU are much smaller than between the EU and China or even the Russian Federation.

What Europe must be able to maintain is its political and economical independence (even we are already economically very well connected) from the USA, China, the Russian Federation, India, and other bigger players in the world. But still Europe will have to take the side of our own values, and this values we share with the so called Western World mainly.

Since latest 1949 we all know, that even Europe and the USA together have huge problems to compete with the former Soviet Union, and it will be the same with China in future.
Mit europäischen Grüßen,
Heinrich Kümmerle
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Hans Müller
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Re: UEF for EU Constitution in 2017

Beitrag von Hans Müller »

Dear Mr. Giner,

First of all, thank you so much for your fast response on my paper I posted to this website on 20 September. I appreciate your interesting thoughts – a serious discussion will always bring new information and new insight, and most important, it can challenge your own views. It can also raise doubts and questions and make you check your sources to find out more about the topic in discussion.

The discussion we had was mainly on the topic of a new Federal Constitution and on what to do to get there. I am sure, we both agree on the fundamental goal for the EU: It should, in the end, be a federal state based on a federal Constitution. That’s why I mentioned in my paper the “Düsseldorfer Programm” of the Europa-Union Deutschland that was approved on 28. Oct. 2012. The headline of the “Düsseldorfer Programm” reads as follows: “Unser Ziel ist der europäische Bundesstaat” – “Our goal is the European federal state.” It appears to me: We agree on the goal but we differ on the path how to reach this goal.

You wrote in your paper: “I will only work for a Constitution so that the EU has the ability to solve problems. Without the Constitution there will only be treaties that each day will be more fragile and the EU could disintegrate to they joy of the enemies of the EU (Nationalisms).” (As far as the “enemies of the EU” and Nationalists are concerned: I do think it is important to say, there are Nationalists inside and outside the EU). On the other hand I quoted in my paper some “urgent tasks” we should settle before we start fighting for the Constitution again.” This statement made you answer: “I have a totally opposite opinion.” My question here: Does this mean to just do nothing to advance Europe before we have a federal Constitution?

To have different opinions on “how to get there” is not new within the European movement and among sincere Europeans. Maybe you read Heinrich Kümmerle’s book “Europa ist für alle da”. It was published just a couple weeks ago. On pages 73/74 Kümmerle writes about the „Political Declaration“, decided by the European Congress in Den Haag on 10 May 1948. One of the goals of the congress was the “economic and political Union”; the Declaration mentions the “German problems” (what will happen to Germany , at that time occupied by the four victors?). The Declaration said, these “German problems”could only be solved by an “European Federation”. But It is interesting to see: Many years after the Den Haag congress the “German problems” could be solved even though the “European Federation” was not yet reached.

Heinrich Kümmerle writes about fundamental differences within the congress on how this wonderful goal of an European Federation could be reached. He quotes Karlheinz Koppe: “Der in Den Haag zutage getretene Gegensatz zwischen Föderalisten und Unionisten erweist sich in der Folge als schwere Belastung sowohl für die Europäische Bewegung, deren Gründung von den Kongressteilnehmern beschlossen wird und die alle europäischen Verbände zusammenfassen soll, als auch für den Europarat, dessen Statut knapp ein Jahr später, am 5. Mai 1949 … unterzeichnet wird.“ Here we see different opinions on „how to get there“ right from the start, and we still have them today. The question might be: Should we try hard to come to a common level or should we just live with these different opinions?
I think there should be a pragmatic approach: If we agree on the goal but do not agree on how to get there, why shouldn’t we just try to reach “more Europe” when ever there is a chance to do so? I see another good chance to advance the economic and financial Union by implementing a European Finance Secretary when the “Corona-Relief-Program” is realized. And: Why shouldn’t we strengthen the European Foreign Policy after the Asylum- and Refugee Program was approved? (I agree: Right now the chances for this program stand at about 50 : 50). But: “more Europe” when ever it can be reached, could make it easier to reach the goal of a Federal Constitution for the EU all together.

I have more questions and doubts to how a Federal Constitution can soon be reached in the way the FAEF wants to get there. The FAEF suggests to start with at least nine (or more) EU member states on the basis of Art. 20 EUT. Let us assume, this idea gets the necessary majority in the European Council and can be realized – let’s not ask here, how long this will take – let’s just get nine or more member states to start with this project of working with a Federal Constitution. I do not dare to guess, which nine states would take part; but let us just assume, we got the nine. What will then happen within the EU? The Union of 27 states will turn into a colorful mosaic (in German: Flickenteppich) of Constitution- and Treaty states. Geographically these two types of member states would not stick together in two blocks. Some of the states might geographically sit next to each other, others will stand alone and geographically isolated. I am afraid this will split Europe into states working with a Federal Constitution and others working with the Lisbon Treaty. Will this model bring more integration and more strength to the EU? I doubt it. I am afraid there will be just more European weakness.

Let me give you some thoughts on one of your remarks in your paper. Right at the beginning you wrote about Germany right after WW II, and you connected the “German miracle” with the eagerness of the Germans to have a Federal Constitution. You wrote: “In Germany after the war, they did not deal with the tax issue, emigration, etc. But the first issue that was addressed in Germany was the Federal Constitution. Afterwards, the Federal Germany developed in peace and prosperity, even creating the famous “German miracle” (Wirtschaftswunder”).

These arguments sound new to me; do you have any literature to support these thoughts? I checked “Wirtschaftswunder” on Wikipedia and found many reasons for the fast German recovery after WW II – actually this didn’t only happen in Germany but also in other European countries – but I did not find any link of the “Wirtschaftswunder” to the German Constitution of 1949.

Just have a look at the dates and at the post war history of Germany: The very first foundation of what was later called the “German miracle” was laid right after the fighting ended in 1945. This happened at different times in the different parts of the country. In my home town of Heilbronn the US forces took over in mid April 1945. On 13 April 1945 the American military appointed a new mayor for Heilbronn, he had been the mayor of the city before the Nazis took over in 1933. He and his new team now were responsible for getting our in parts heavily destroyed city started again. Clean up rubble and debris, get the infrastructure started again, open or rebuild schools, get food and housing etc. – a terrific piece of work with only small resources. Actually these “men and women of the first hour” were the heroes and laid the foundation for the “miracle”.
The first election in the American zone took place on 26. May 1946 for the local level. The citizens voted in democratic elections for a new city council.

But the, every day life, the political life and the life in society, developed different in the different parts of Germany. As you know, Germany after the war was occupied by American, British, French and Russian forces. The Grundgesetz (Basic Law, Constitution) for Western Germany dates 23. May 1949.

For the “Wirtschaftswunder” (the “German miracle”) in Western Germany the 21 June 1948 was an important date; this was the date of the currency reform; 1948 the D-Mark got started. Actually what happened after WW II stood in sharp contrast to what happened after WW I. For Western Germany to benefit from the Marshall Plan was very important. After some discussions among the victors the Western powers decided on a real reconstruction and not on punishment. The loans from the Marshall Plan started for Germany in 1947.

And there were the fundamental geo-political changes. On 24 June 1948 Russia started the Berlin Blockade; it ended on 12 May 1949. This made it obvious for the world: The “Iron Curtain” had gone down in Europe. Western Germany, as part of the West, became a member of Nato on 6 May 1955.

So once again: I doubt it very much that there was a direct link between the German Constitution of 1949 and the “Wirtschaftswunder”. What do you think?


Greetings from Heilbronn and all the best

Hans Müller
Mit freundlichen Grüßen
Ihr
Hans Müller
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